Return on investment (ROI) and value contribution

The Volkswagen Group’s financial target system centers on continuously and sustainably increasing the value of the Company. In order to ensure the efficient use of resources in the Automotive Division and to measure the success of this, we have been using a value-based management system for a number of years, with return on investment (ROI) as a relative indicator and value contribution1, a key performance indicator linked to the cost of capital, as an absolute performance measure.

The return on investment serves as a consistent target in strategic and operational management. If the return on investment exceeds the market cost of capital, there is an increase in the value of the invested capital and a positive value contribution. The concept of value-based management allows the success of the Automotive Division and individual business units to be evaluated. It also enables the earnings power of our products, product lines and projects – such as new plants – to be measured.

Components of value contribution

Value contribution is calculated on the basis of the operating result after tax and the opportunity cost of invested capital. The operating result shows the economic performance of the Automotive Division and is initially a pre-tax figure.

Using the various international income tax rates of the relevant companies, we assume an overall average tax rate of 30% when calculating the operating result after tax.

The cost of capital is multiplied by the average invested capital to give the opportunity cost of capital. Invested capital is calculated as total operating assets reported in the balance sheet (property, plant and equipment, intangible assets, lease assets, inventories and receivables) less non-interest-bearing liabilities (trade payables and payments on account received). Average invested capital is derived from the balance at the beginning and the end of the reporting period.

As the concept of value-based management only comprises our operating activities, assets relating to investments in subsidiaries and associates and the investment of cash funds are not included when calculating invested capital. Interest charged on these assets is reported in the financial result.

Determining the current cost of capital

The cost of capital is the weighted average of the required rates of return on equity and debt. The cost of equity is determined using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM).

This model uses the yield on long-term risk-free Bunds, increased by the risk premium attaching to investments in the equity market. The risk premium comprises a general market risk and a specific business risk.

The general risk premium of 6.5% reflects the general risk of a capital investment in the equity market and is oriented on the Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) World Index.

The specific business risk – price fluctuations in Volkswagen preferred shares – has been modeled in comparison to the MSCI World Index when calculating the beta factor. The MSCI World Index is a global capital market benchmark for investors.

The analysis period for the beta factor calculation spans five years with annual beta figures on a daily basis and an average subsequently being calculated. A beta factor of 1.22 (1.28) was determined for 2016.

  (XLS:) Download












Risk-free rate





MSCI World Index market risk premium





Volkswagen-specific risk premium





(Volkswagen beta factor)





Cost of equity after tax





Cost of debt










Cost of debt after tax





Proportion of equity





Proportion of debt





Cost of capital after tax





The cost of debt is based on the average yield for long-term debt. As borrowing costs are tax-deductible, the cost of debt is adjusted to account for the tax rate of 30%.

A weighting on the basis of a fixed ratio for the fair values of equity and debt gives an effective cost of capital for the Automotive Division of 6.2 (6.8)% for 2016.

1 The value contribution corresponds to the Economic Value Added (EVA®). EVA® is a registered trademark of Stern Stewart & Co.